|Reports on Topical Issues|
This page contains information on selected topical issues. Current subject areas include water use, water quality, fate of pesticides in the environment, fertilization, and trends in the southern California turfgrass industry, and benefits of turfgrass.
Paper addressing whether offering rebates for the conversion of turf to xeriscape is a cost effective and environmentally friendly method to achieve water savings, including examining the effectiveness of several "Cash for Grass" programs.
Article by Sylvan Addink, Ph.D., Certified Professional Agronomist
A summary of a study which used selected weather-sensing irrigation controllers to determine the climatic data the controllers use, how easy they are to setup and operate, and how closely their irrigation regimes match landscape irrigation needs established by previous field research.
Article from the Fall 2004 issue of Co-Hort, a publication which summarizes current research and information on issues related to urban landscapes, turfgrass, and ornamental/floriculture crop production and published by the UC Cooperative Extension Specialists in the UCR Dept. of Botany and Plant Sciences (Donald J. Merhaut and Dennis Pittenger, Editors)
This article emphasizes the continuing need of research-based information when considering landscape water requirements.
Article from the Spring 2004 issue of Co-Hort, a publication which summarizes current research and information on issues related to urban landscapes, turfgrass, and ornamental/floriculture crop production and published by the UC Cooperative Extension Specialists in the UCR Dept. of Botany and Plant Sciences (Vic Gibeault, Donald J. Merhaut, and Dennis Pittenger, Editors)
A paper that compares an annual water budget based on reference evapotranspiration (ETo) x landscape area (in acre feet) with estimated annual irrigation water use (in acre feet) for hypothetical 18-hole golf courses located in three southern California climates: southern coast marine climate (a golf course located in Irvine); transition climate between marine and desert climates (a golf course located in Riverside); and southern California desert climate (a golf course located in Indio, Palm Springs area).
The purposes of this document developed by the University of Georgia and the GCSAA are to foster development and implementation of site-specific water conservation plans on golf courses and other turf areas based on the Best Management Practices (BMPs) approach and to foster the adoption of the BMP approach to water conservation by regulatory agencies.
Reference Evapotranspiration (color
Water Use Classification of Landscape Species (Adobe
Surface Water Quality (Runoff)
Pesticides and Surface Water Quality
"The Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) term refers to a regulatory program, numeric water-quality standards, the process to set those standards, and a new approach to regulating water-quality. The TMDL approach is different from past water-quality regulation because it focuses on improving the quality of a water body rather than limiting the concentration of pollutants coming out of the end of a pipe. Furthermore, the TMDL approach is designed to limit pollution from both point and non-point pollution sources. Finally, the TMDL program's goal of improving the quality of water bodies necessitates a watershed-wide pollution-reduction strategy."
Article from the debut edition (Winter 2003) issue of WaterWise, a quarterly publication addressing water issues published by the UC Cooperative Extension Specialists in the UCR Dept. of Environmental Sciences (Dr. Bo Cutter, Editor)
Water Quality Laws and Their Enforcement in California
A Significant Change in Water Quality Regulation Enforcement
Water Resources Association TMDLs: Total Maximum Daily Loads
Groundwater Pollution Hazard Index
leaching and best management practices for overseeded bermudagrass fairways
of Nitrogen Fertilizer in a Turfgrass System
Transfer of Pesticides from Turf: Refocusing Default Assumptions on Reality
Evaluation and Modeling of Pesticide Partitioning Data from the UCR Putting
Turfgrass and Environmental Research Online
Turfgrass Fertilizers and Fertility Programs for Tall Fescue
General information regarding feritilizer types and fertility programs for managing tall fescue.
The California Golf Economy- A report commissioned by GOLF 20/20 for the California Alliance for Golf, and prepared by SRI International, July 2008
ABSTRACT: With 3 million golfers, 926 courses, and a large number of annual golf events, golf in the Golden State is more than an enjoyable pastime- it is a key industry contributing to the vitality of California's economy. In 2006, the size of California's direct golf economy was approxiamately $6.9 billion. This is comparable to revenues generated by important industries in the state, such as biotechnology-focused research and development ($4.6 billion), wineries ($8.2 billion), and semiconductor and related device manufacturing ($10.9 billion). Golf brings visitors to the state, spurs new residential construction, generates retail, sales, and creates demand for a myriad of goods and services. In 2006, California's golf industry generated a total economic impact of $15.1 billion, supporting nearly 160,000 jobs with $4.8 billion of wage income. The continued health and growth of the golf industry has a direct bearing on future jobs, commerce, economic development, and tax revenues for the large number of California's communities and industries.
ABSTRACT: Information about the economic impacts of environmental horticulture is important for better government and business decision-making. Californians spent $8.52 billion on marketed and in-house environmental horticulture, managed at least 1.37 million acres of horticultural landscapes, and generated $10.1 billion of related sales in 1995. These sales directly supported 128,842 jobs. According to preliminary estimates, golf course superintendents and their staffs spent $864 million and worked 14,210 full-time-equivalent jobs to care for 145,386 acres of landscapes at golf courses in 2000. The area of facilities with golf courses and real spending to care for these landscapes both grew 2.1% per year during 1995-2000. Employment in golf course maintenance grew 1.1% per year during the same period. In South Carolina, retail sales of marketed goods and services for environmental horticulture grew from $513 million in 1994 to $948.5 million in 1999. Adjusted for inflation, these sales increased 10.6% per year. Employment associated with the production and sale of these products grew from 18,478 full-time equivalent jobs in 1994 to 24,710 in 1999, or 6.0% during the period. Although the direct economic impacts are larger in California than South Carolina, they are larger relative to traditional agriculture in the Palmetto state than the Golden state. The greater relative importance of environmental horticulture in the farm economy of the Palmetto state coincides with the greater proportion of land that South Carolinians have converted land into residential and commercial real estate. In the U.S., retail expenditures on marketed goods and services of this industry were $54.8 billion in 1998. Estimates of expenditures and sales associated with not only marketed but also in-house environmental horticulture at the end-user level were $93.5 billion and $92.9 billion in 1995 for the U.S. Adjusted for inflation but not for any economic or demographic growth, these estimates would have been $103.7 billion and $103.0 billion in 2001. Researchers should focus on not only estimation of economic impacts but also analysis of the behavioral determinants of these impacts.
Original source: Templeton, S. 2002. Economic Impacts of Environmental Horticulture in California, South Carolina, and the U. S. Tim D. Davis and Victor A. Gibeault (eds.), Proceedings of the Symposium on Urban Agriculture: Emerging Opportunities in Science, Education, and Policy, pgs. 117-124.
Impacts of Californias Golf Course Facilities in 2000
In 2000 superintendents and their staffs spent $824 million and worked the equivalent of 13,799 full-time jobs to care for 113,672 acres of the state's 977 golf courses. Real spending on golf course maintenance increased 0.8% annually and the number of jobs associated with this maintenance increased 0.5% per year during 1995-2000. Superintendents used 340,160 acre-feet of water to irrigate 87,693 acres in 2000. Revenues per acre-foot of applied water and per acre of land were, on average, 8.6 and 6.8 times larger at golf courses than agricultural crop farms.
Survey data were used
to estimate direct impacts of the facilities on sales and jobs. These
estimates are conservative. Indirect and induced impacts on sales and
jobs, all value-added impacts, and all tax impacts were estimated with
the IMPLAN input-output model of California.
A Survey of Professional Turfgrass Managers in Southern California Concerning Their Use of Turfgrass Best Management Practices
Slide presentation from the 2000 UC Riverside Turfgrass and Landscape Research Conference. Companion article also published in the July-September 2002 issue of HortTechnology (Vol. 12, No. 3, pp. 498-504).
Protects the Environment, Benefits Health
In times of strained budgets and limited resources, it is appropriate to ask the question: "what is the importance of turfgrass to Californians?" It is also appropriate to be very specific about the contributions of turfgrass in our society. This article provides research-based information on the value of turfgrass to people and the environment in which we live.
on environmental horticulture urban agriculture:
Agriculture has typically
been associated with the production of food and fiber
and Agricultural Communities: Opportunities for Common Ground
"The changing role of agriculture in urban settings is considered in this comprehensive report written by a twelve-member task force. The report frames "urban agriculture" in both historical and contemporary American society, providing a picture of geographic, demographic, and economic changes in rural and metropolitan life. Policy issues such as land preservation, alternative market opportunities, sprawl, taxation, and food security are considered. Research and educational challenges are presented for consideration by those at institutions of higher education, including land-grant universities."